WHAT IS THE ENGINEERING DRAWING
Engineering drawing is the common language of engineering and describes the process of creating drawings for any engineering or architectural application. Engineering drawings, produced according to accepted standards and format, provide an effective and efﬁcient way to communicate speciﬁc information about design intent. Engineering drawings are typically not open to interpretation like other drawings, such as decorative drawings and artistic paintings. A successful engineering drawing describes a speciﬁc item in a way that the viewer of the drawing understands completely and without misinterpretation.
The term engineering drawing is also known as drafting, engineering drafting, mechanical drawing, mechanical drafting, technical drawing, and technical drafting. Drafting is a graphic language using lines, symbols, and notes to describe objects for manufacture or construction. Most technical disciplines use drafting, including architecture, civil and electrical engineering, electronics, piping, manufacturing, and structural engineering. The term mechanical drafting has alternate meanings. The manufacturing industry uses mechanical drafting, with its name derived from mechanisms. The construction industry also uses mechanical drafting, but the term refers to drafting heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, which is the mechanical portion of an architectural project.
Manual drafting is a term that describes traditional drafting practice using pencil or ink on a medium such as paper or polyester ﬁlm, with the support of drafting instruments and equipment. Computer-aided drafting (CAD) has taken the place of manual drafting. CAD uses computers for drafting. CAD also refers to computer-aided design when computers are used to design.
Engineering drawings communicate a variety of concepts, such as engineering requirements, instructions, and proposals, to a variety of people, such as the many different individuals often involved with a project. An engineering drawing or a complete set of engineering drawings provides all of the data required to manufacture or construct an item or product, such as a machine part, consumer product, or structure.
Study the drawing of the medical instrument part in Figure. The drawing completely and unmistakably describes the size and location of all geometric features, and it identiﬁes other characteristics of the part, such as material and manufacturing precision and processes. The medical instrument company uses the drawing to share and document design intent and to manufacture the part. Consider how difﬁcult it would be to explain the part without the engineering drawing.
The figure shows another example of an engineering drawing, an architectural drawing for a home-remodelling project.
This engineering drawing is an architectural drawing for a home-remodelling project. The drawing is one sheet in a set of drawings that communicates architectural style, the size and location of building features, and construction methods and materials.
The drawing is one sheet in a set of drawings that communicates architectural style, the size and location of building features, and construction methods and materials. The set of drawings is also required to obtain a loan to pay for construction, to acquire building permits to legally begin construction, and to establish accurate building cost estimates. Usually, it is legally impossible and certainly impractical to begin construction without engineering drawings.
Computers in Design and Drafting
The use of computers has revolutionized business and industry process, including design and drafting practices. Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is the process of using a computer with CADD software for design and drafting applications. Software is the program or instructions that enable a computer to perform speciﬁc functions to accomplish a task. CAD is the acronym for computer-aided design, but CAD is also a common reference to computer-aided drafting. Computer-aided design and computer-aided drafting refer to speciﬁc aspects of the CADD process. The use of CADD has made the design and drafting process more accurate and faster. Several industries and most disciplines related to engineering and architecture use CADD. Most engineering ﬁrms and educational institutions that previously used manual drafting practices have evolved to CADD.
CADD allows designers and drafters to produce accurate drawings that are very neat and legible and matched to industry standards. CADD can even produce architectural drawings, which have always had an artistic ﬂair with lettering and line styles, to match the appearance of the ﬁnest handwork available. In addition, CADD drawings are consistent from one person or company to the next. CADD enhances the ability for designers and drafters to be creative by providing many new tools such as solid modelling, animation, and virtual reality.
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