How Manual Drafting Equipment & Supplies used in CAD

Manual Drafting in cad application

How Manual Drafting Equipment & Supplies used in CAD



    Manual drafting, also known as hand drafting, describes traditional drafting practice using pencil or ink on a medium such as paper or polyester film, with the support of drafting instruments and equipment. This chapter also explains drawing scale, sheet size, and sheet format.

    Manual Drafting in cad applicationComputer-aided design and drafting (CADD) has replaced manual drafting in most of the drafting industry.

    As a result, some of the information in this chapter primarily serves as a historical reference. However, both manual drafting and CADD require that you understand the basics of drafting. Concepts such as scale, sheet size, and sheet format are critical and universal to manual drafting and CADD. Also, some companies use CADD but have manual drafting equipment available that you should be able to recognize and operate at a basic level.


    Professional manual drafting requires appropriate drafting of equipment and supplies. If you work in a modern CADD environment, manual drafting tools such as compasses, dividers, triangles, templates, and scales have less importance. However, they are still valuable for sketching, taking measurements, and other related activities. You can purchase drafting supplies and equipment in a kit or buy items individually. Manual drafting equipment is available from many local and online vendors. Search the Internet or a phone book for keywords or headings such as drafting equipment and supplies, blueprinting, architect supplies, and artist supplies. Always purchase quality instruments for the best results. The following is a list of items generally needed for typical manual drafting:

    • Drafting furniture.
    • One 0.3 mm automatic drafting pencil with 4H, 2H, and H leads.
    • One 0.5 mm automatic drafting pencil with 4H, 2H, H, and F leads.
    • One 0.7 mm automatic drafting pencil with 2H, H, and F leads.
    • One 0.9 mm automatic drafting pencil with H, F, and HB leads.
    • Sandpaper sharpening pad.
    • Erasers recommended for drafting with pencil on paper.
    • Erasing shield.
    • Dusting brush.
    • 6 in. Bow compass.
    • Dividers.
    • 8 in. 30–60 triangle.
    • 8 in. 45 triangle.
    • Circle template with small circles.
    • Circle template with large circles.
    • Irregular curve.
    • Scales:
    • Triangular architect's scale.
    • Triangular civil engineer's scale.
    • Triangular metric scale.
    • Drafting tape.
    • Lettering guide (optional).
    • Arrowhead template (optional).


    manual drafting automatic pencilAutomatic pencils are standard for manual drafting, sketching, and other office uses. The term automatic pencil refers to a pencil with a lead chamber that advances the lead from the chamber to the writing tip by the push of a button or tab when a new piece of lead needed. Automatic pencils hold leads of one width, so you do not need to sharpen the lead. The pencils are available in several different lead sizes.
    Drafters typically have several automatic pencils. Each pencil has a different grade of lead hardness and is appropriate for a
    specific technique. This reduces the need to change leads constantly. Some drafters use a light blue lead for layout work. If your primary work is CADD, a combination of 0.5-, 0.7-, and 0.9 mm pencils and leads is good for sketching and related activities.

    Lead Grades

    range of lead gradeLead grades of 2H and H are good in your automatic pencil for typical daily office use. The leads you select for line work and lettering depend on the amount of pressure you apply and other technique factors. Experiment until you identify the leads that give the best line quality. Leads commonly used for thick lines range from 2H to F, whereas leads for thin lines range from 4H to H, depending on individual preference.
    Construction lines for layout and guidelines are very lightly drawn with a 6H or 4H lead. The Figure shows the different lead grades.


    how to use bow compassA compass is an instrument used to draw circles and arcs. A compass is especially useful for large circles, but using one can be time-consuming. Use a template, whenever possible, to make circles or arcs more quickly.

    There are several basic types of compasses. A bow compass, shown in Figure, is used for most drawing applications. A beam compass consists of a bar with an adjustable needle, and a pencil or pen attachment for swinging large arcs or circles. Also available is a beam that is adaptable to the bow compass. This adapter works only on a bow compass that has a removable leg.




    using dividerDividers are used to transfer dimensions or to divide a distance into several equal parts. Dividers are also used in navigation to measure distance in nautical miles. Some drafters prefer to use bow dividers because the centre wheel provides the ability to make fine adjustments easily. Besides, the setting remains more stable than with standard friction dividers.

    A functional divider should not be too loose or tight. It should be easy to adjust with one hand. You should always control a divider with one hand as you layout equal increments or transfer dimensions from one feature to another. Do not try to use a divider as a compass. The Figure shows how to handle the divider when used.

    Proportional Dividers

    Proportional dividers are used to reduce or enlarge an object without having to make mathematical calculations or scale manipulations. The centre point of the divider is set at the correct point for the proportion you want. Then you measure the original size line with one side of the proportional divider; the other side automatically determines the new reduced or enlarged size.


    parallel barThe parallel bar slides up and down a drafting board to allow you to draw horizontal lines. Use triangles with the parallel bar to draw vertical lines and angles. The parallel bar was common for architectural drafting because architectural drawings are frequently very large. Architects
    using manual drafting often need to draw straight lines the full length of their boards, and the parallel bar is ideal for such lines.



    how to use triangleThere are two standard triangles. The 30º–60º triangle has angles of 30–60–90. The 45 triangle has angles of 45–45–90. Some drafters prefer to use triangles in place of a vertical drafting machine scale, as shown in Figure. Use the machine protractor or the triangle to make angled lines. Using parallel bars, drafters utilize triangles to make vertical and angled lines.

    Triangles can also be used as straightedges to connect points for drawing lines without the aid of a parallel bar or machine scale. Use triangles individually or in combination to draw angled lines in 15 increments Also available are adjustable triangles with built-in protractors that are used to make angles of any degree up to a 45 angle.


    Manual drafting templates are plastic sheets with accurate shapes cut out for use as stencils to draw specific shapes. The most common manual drafting templates are circle templates for drawing circles and arcs. Templates for drawing other shapes, such as ellipses, and for letters are also common. Templates are also available for specific requirements and drafting disciplines. For example, use architectural templates to draw the floor plan and other symbols to scale. Electronic drafting templates have schematic symbols for electronic schematic drawings.

    Circle Templates

    Circle templates are available with circles in a range of sizes beginning with 1/16 in. (1.5 mm). The circles on the template are marked with their diameters and are available in fractions, decimals, or millimetres. Figure 2.10 shows the parts of a circle. A popular template is one that has circles, hexagons, squares, and triangles.

    Always use a circle template rather than a compass. Circle templates save time and are very accurate. For best results, when making circles, keep your pencil or pen perpendicular to the paper. To obtain proper width lines with a pencil, use a 0.9 mm automatic pencil.

    Ellipse Templates

    An ellipse is a circle seen at an angle. Isometric circles are ellipses aligned with the horizontal right or left planes of an isometric box. Isometric ellipse templates automatically position the ellipse at the proper angle of 35 16'.


    Irregular curves, commonly called French curves, are curves that have no constant radii. A radius curve is composed of a radius and a tangent. The radius on these curves is constant and ranges from 3 ft to 200 ft. (900–60,000 mm). Irregular curves are commonly used in highway drafting. Ship's curves are also available for layout and development of ships hulls. The curves in a set of ship's curves become progressively larger and, like French curves, have no constant radii. Flexible curves are also available that allow you to adjust to the desired curve.


    A manual drafting machine is a machine that mounts to the table or board and has scales attached to an adjustable head that rotates for drawing angles. When locked in a zero position, the scales allow drawing horizontal and vertical lines and perpendicular lines at any angle orientation. The drafting machine vernier head allows you to measure angles accurately to 5' (minutes). Drafting machines, for the most part, take the place of triangles and parallel bars. The drafting machine maintains a horizontal and vertical relationship between scales, which also serve as straightedges. A protractor allows the scales to be set quickly at any angle.

    There are two types of drafting machines: arm and track. The track machine generally replaced the arm machine in the history of manual drafting. A major advantage of the track machine is that it allows the drafter to work with a board in the vertical position. A vertical drafting surface position is generally more comfortable to use than a horizontal table. When ordering a drafting machine, the specifications should relate to the size of the drafting board on which it is mounted. For example, a 37½ 3 60 in. (950–1500 mm) machine properly fits a table of the same size.

    Arm Drafting Machine

    arm drafting machineThe arm drafting machine is compact and less expensive than a track machine. The arm machine clamps to a table and through an elbowlike arrangement of supports allows you to position the protractor head and scales anywhere on the board. The Figure shows an arm drafting machine.

    Track Drafting Machine

    A track drafting machine has a traversing arm that moves left and right across the table and a head unit that moves up and down the traversing arm. There is a locking device for both the head and the traversing arm. The shape and placement of the controls of a track machine vary with the manufacturer, although most brands have the same operating features and procedures.


    A scale is an instrument with a system of ordered marks at fixed intervals used as a reference standard in measurement. A scale establishes a proportion used in determining the dimensional relationship of an actual object to the representation of the same object on a drawing. Use specific scales for mechanical, architectural, civil, and metric drawings.

    Manual drafters use scales as measurement instruments to help create scaled drawings. In a CADD work environment, a scale is useful for sketching and taking measurements, as well as for related tasks. The scale is a universal and critical design and drafting concept.

    Scale Shapes

    scale shapesThere are four basic scale shapes, as shown in Figure. The two-bevel scale is also available with chuck plates for use with standard arm or track drafting machines. Drafting machine scales have typical calibrations, and some have no scale reading for use as a straightedge. Drafting machine scales are purchased by designating the length needed—12, 18, or 24 in.—and the scale calibration such as metric, engineer's full scale in tenths and half-scale in twentieths, or architect's scale 1/4" 5 1' –0". Many other scales are available. The triangular scale is commonly used in drafting and has different scale calibrations on each corner of the triangle. Common triangular scales are the architectural scale calibrated in feet and inches, mechanical scale calibrated in decimal inches, civil scale calibrated in feet and tenths of a foot, and the metric-scale calibrated in millimetres and centimetres.

    Drawing Scale

    Drawings are scaled so that the objects represented can be illustrated clearly on standard sizes of paper. It would be difficult, for example, to make a full-size drawing of a house. You must decrease the displayed size, or scale, of the house to fit properly on a sheet. Another example is a very small machine part that requires you to increase the drawing scale to show necessary detail. Machine parts are often drawn full size or even two, four, or ten times larger than full size, depending on the actual size of the part.

    The selected scale depends on:

    • The actual size of the objects
    • The amount of detail to
    • The media size.
    • The amount of dimensioning and notes

    In addition, you should always select a standard scale that is appropriate for the drawing and drafting discipline. The drawing title block usually indicates the scale at which most views are drawn or the predominant scale of a drawing. If the scale of a view differs from that given in the title block, the unique scale typically appears as a note below the corresponding view.

    Mechanical Engineer's Scale

    engineer's scaleThe mechanical engineer's scale is commonly used for mechanical drafting when drawings are in fractional or decimal inches. The mechanical engineer's scale typically has full-scale divisions that are divided into 1/16, 10, and 50. The 1/16 divisions are the same as the 16 architect's scale where there are 12 in. and each inch is divided into 1/16 in. increments (or sometimes 1/32 in. divisions). The 10 scale is the same as the 10 civil engineer's scale, where each inch is divided into ten parts, with each division being .10 in. The 50 scale is for scaling dimensions that require additional accuracy because each inch has 50 divisions. This makes each increment 1/30 in. or .02 in. (1 4 50 5 .02). The Figure shows a comparison between the mechanical engineer's scales. The mechanical engineer’s scale also has half-size 1:2 (1/2" 5 1"), quarter-size 1:4 (1/4" 5 1"), and eighth-size 1:8 (1/8" 5 1") options for reducing the drawing scale (see Figure 2.28). Figure 2.29 on page 53 shows a drawing that is represented at full scale (1:1), half-scale (1:2), and quarter-scale (1:4) for comparison.


    The term media, as applied here, refers to the material on which you create drawings, such as paper or polyester film. The two main types of media used for manual drafting are vellum and polyester film, with vellum being the most commonly used. Several factors other than cost also influence the purchase and use of drafting media, including durability, smoothness, erasability, dimensional stability, and transparency.

    Durability is a consideration if the original drawing will be extensively used. Originals can tear or wrinkle, and the images can become difficult to see if the drawings are used often. Smoothness relates to how the medium accepts line work and lettering. The material should be easy to draw on so that the image is dark and sharp without a great deal of effort on your part.

    Erasability is important because errors need to be corrected, and changes are frequently made. When images are erased, ghosting—the residue that remains when lines are dif- ficult to remove—should be kept to a minimum. Unsightly ghost images reproduce in a print. Materials that have good erasability are easy to clean. Dimensional stability is the quality of the media to remain unchanged in size because of the effects of atmospheric conditions such as heat, cold, and humidity. Some materials are more dimensionally stable than others.


    One thing most designers, engineers, architects, and drafters have in common is that their finished drawings are intended for reproduction. The goal of every professional is to produce drawings of the highest quality that give the best possible prints when reproduced. Many of the factors that influence the selection of media for drafting have been described; however, the most important factor in reproduction.

    The primary combination that achieves the best reproduction is the blackest and most opaque lines or images on the most transparent base or material. Vellum and polyester film make good prints if the drawing is well done. If the only concern is the quality of the reproduction, ink on polyester film is the best choice. However, some products have better characteristics than others. Some individuals prefer certain products. It is up to individuals and companies to determine the combinations that work best for their needs and budgets.



    Most professional drawings follow specific standards for sheet size and format. The Australian Drafting Standard specifies the exact sheet size and format for engineering drawings created for the manufacturing industry. Other disciplines can follow Australian Drafting standards. However, architectural, civil, and structural drawings used in the construction industry generally have a different sheet format and may use unique sheet sizes, such as architectural sheet sizes. Follow sheet size and format standards to improve readability, handling, filing, and reproduction; this will also help ensure that all necessary information appears on the sheet.

    When selecting a sheet size, consider the size of objects drawn; the drawing scale; the amount of additional content on the sheet, such as a border, title block, and notes; and drafting standards. In general, choose a sheet size that is large enough to show all elements of the drawing using an appropriate scale and without crowding. For example, the dimensioned views of a machine part that occupies a total area of 15 in. 3 6 in. (381 mm 3 153 mm), can typically fit on a 17 in. 3 11 in.   (B size) or 420 mm 3 297 mm (A3 size) sheet.


    Diazo prints are also known as ozalid dry prints and blue-line prints. The diazo reproduction process has been mostly replaced by photocopy reproduction and the use of CADD files for printing and plotting. Diazo printing uses a process that involves an ultraviolet light passing through a translucent original drawing to expose a chemically coated paper or print material under-neath. The light does not go through the dense, black lines on the original drawing, so the chemical coating on the paper beneath the lines remains. The print material is then exposed to ammonia vapour, which activates the remaining chemical coat-ing to produce blue, black, or brown lines on a white or colour-less background. The print that results is a diazo, or blue-line print, not a blueprint. The term blueprint is a generic term used to refer to diazo prints even though they are not true blueprints. Originally, the blueprint process created a print with white lines on a dark blue background.


    Photocopy printers are also known as engineering copiers when used in an engineering or architectural environment. A photocopy printer is a machine for photographically reproducing material, especially by xerography. Xerography is a dry photographic or photocopying process in which a negative image formed by a resinous powder on an electrically charged plate is electrically transferred to and fixed as a positive image on a paper or other copying surface. Prints can be made on bond paper, vellum, polyester fi lm, coloured paper, or other translucent materials. The reproduction capabilities also include instant print sizes ranging from 45 percent to 141 percent of the original size.
    Larger or smaller sizes are possible by enlarging or reducing in two or more steps. Almost any large original can be converted into a smaller-sized reproducible print, and then the secondary original can be used to generate additional photocopy prints for distribution, inclusion in manuals, or for more convenient handling. In addition, a random collection of mixed-scale drawings can be enlarged or reduced and converted to one standard scale and format. Reproduction clarity is so good that halftone illustrations (photographs) and solid or fine line work have excellent resolution and density.
    The photocopying process and CADD printing and plotting have mostly replaced the diazo process. Photocopying has many advantages over diazo printing, including quality repro-duction in many sizes, use of most common materials, and no hazardous ammonia. A CADD system allows you to produce a quality hard copy print quickly. A hard copy is a physical drawing produced by a printer or plotter. The hard copy can be printed on vellum for further reproduction using the diazo or photocopy process.


    Prints come in a variety of sizes ranging from small, 8½ 3 11 in., to 34 3 44 in. or larger. It is easy to fi le the 8½ 3 11 in. size prints because standard file cabinets are designed to hold this size. There are file cabinets available called flat files that can be used to store full-size unfolded prints. However, many companies use standard file cabinets. Larger prints must be properly folded before they can be filed in a standard file cabinet. It is also important to fold a print properly if it is to be mailed.
    Folding large prints is much like folding a road map. Folding is done in a pattern of bends that results in the title block and sheet identifi cation ending up on the front. This is desirable for easy identifi cation in the file cabinet. The proper method used to fold prints also aids in unfolding or refolding prints.


    Microfilm is photographic reproduction on film of a drawing or other document that is highly reduced for ease in storage and sending from one place to another. When needed, equipment is available for enlargement of the microfi lm to printed old vellum becomes yellowed and brittle. In addition, in case of a fire or other kind of destruction, originals can be lost and endless hours of drafting vanish. For these and other reasons, microfilm has been used for storage and reproduction of original drawings. Although microfilm storage of old drawings still exists in some companies, CADD files have replaced the use of microfilm for most modern applications.


    Microfilm was once an industry standard for storing and accessing drawings. Large international companies especially relied on the microfilm network to ensure that all worldwide subcontractors, vendors, clients, and others involved with a project were able to reproduce needed draw-ings and related documents. One advantage of microfilm was the ability to archive drawings—that is, store some-thing permanently for safekeeping.
    The use of CADD in the engineering and construction industries has made it possible to create and store drawings electronically on a computer, optical disk, or other media. This makes it possible to retrieve stored drawings easily and quickly. A big advantage of CADD file storage involves using CADD drawings. When you retrieve CADD-generated drawings, they are of the same quality as when they were originally drawn. You can use CADD drawings to make multiple copies or to redesign a product efficiently. In addition to the maintained original quality of the stored CADD drawing, the drawing file can be sent anywhere in the world over the Internet or within a company's intranet. The Internet is a worldwide network of communication between computers, and intranet links computers within a company or an organization.


    The optimum efficiency of design and manufacturing methods is achieved without producing a single paper copy of a drawing of a part. Computer networks can directly link engineering and manufacturing departments by integrating computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing or machining (CAM) software. This integration is referred to as CAD/CAM. The drafter or designer creates a 3-D model or 2-D engineering drawing of a part using CADD software. CAM software is then used to convert the geometry to computer numerical control (CNC) data that is read by the numerically controlled machine tools. Often, the CAD/CAM system is electronically connected to the machine tool. This electronic connection is called networking. This direct link is referred to as direct numerical control (DNC), and it requires no additional media such as paper, disks, CDs, or tape to transfer information from engineering to manufacturing.

    Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting. Contact Us for more info

    Facts of the Drafting Professional Perspective

    cad professional

    Facts of the Drafting Professional Perspective


      cad drafter professionalPROFESSIONAL PERSPECTIVE

      There is a significant difference between an individual trained in the theories, principles, standards, and requirements of the career field and a true professional. Being a professional is more than holding a credential. A certificate or diploma is only an indication of knowledge in the area you have chosen to study. Many recently educated people search for a large salary, but they generally have only a moderate understanding of their career field and little or no training as a true professional.

      The facts are simple. When employed, you typically sign an agreement indicating job requirements, work times, vacations, sick days, insurance provisions, and employer expectations.

      Many employers have a dress code, a code of ethics, and other provisions you must follow. As an employee, you are an adult who is being paid to make things happen. You are a part of a working machine, but you are not the main wheel that makes it turn. Do your job, do it well, and keep the wheels turning, which is your primary function in an entry-level position.

      In becoming a true professional, you need to keep in mind that with the availability of the Internet and other media, that your potential employer can check up on you and in many cases find out more than you want them to know. Facebook, MySpace, blogs, and other social networking areas on the Internet can be very damaging to your career if misused. As with your professional attitude, you need to keep some things private.


      You do need a professional network, and there are many of them such as LinkedIn or Plaxo that can help you network on a professional level. Now is the time to exhibit responsibilities to yourself and your employer.

      In my current role, I am in constant contact with the leaders of the industry, representing some of the most prestigious manufacturing, engineering, architectural, and industrial firms in the world. When discussing the employment of future drafters and designers, I often request information on the reasons one individual is chosen over another when they are equally qualified. The answer is consistent; they employ those who reflect professionalism in all aspects of their individuality and areas of training.


      The following are 15 facts that make you a professional:

      1. You must understand that your education begins after you have achieved your Your credentials only expose you to the knowledge and skills needed to perform the job. Real learning comes from day-to-day experience over many years.
      2. Consider the interview process, the interviewer, and the type of company when seeking to Investigate the company and determine what they do, their geographic area, and who owns the company. The company mission and employee expectations should match your goals and objectives.
      3. If you are seeking a career, do not take a job just to be Dissatisfaction may show in your work and performance, and it may result in you seeking new employment or being terminated. Employment changes can make it difficult to becoming reemployed. You should always keep a position for two or more years.
      4. Leave your attitude at You should show gratitude for your employment. Be proud that this company thinks you have the potential to be a part of its working family. Keep in mind that you are not the owner.
      5. Keep your opinion to yourself, focus on your job, and shape your This will bring you more attention and give you more excellent opportunities. Share improvement ideas with your supervisor. Ask if your work is acceptable and if there is anything that you can do better. Accept criticism with modesty.
      6. Many co-workers will do anything to advance, which is an unethical fact of survival in This activity can lead to discontent. Remember, you work for your supervisor, your job is to improve the product, produce a product, and increase company profits. Negative actions toward you by co-workers reflect their own inability to carry out their duties.
      7. Acting professional is a big part of your new You hold credentials, and with them comes a code of ethics that professionals follow. Here are some guidelines: (1) Be at your workstation, the computer turned on, chair adjusted, and ready to work a few minutes before work time. (2) Take your breaks at the designated. This is when you typically go to the restroom, get a coffee refill, or eat a snack. Work time is for production. (3) Your scheduled lunchtime includes You may find it more convenient to eat at work and have time to relax or do personal things. (4) Quitting time can be exciting, but do not stop early just to be out the door at 5 P.M. sharp. Complete a project and then deliver it to your supervisor if it takes a few minutes. You will have a head start on tomorrow and your career.
      8. Dress well for your interview and on the job, providing a professional Men should wear a shirt and tie, jacket, dress pants, and polished leather shoes with laces. Women should wear professional style clothing, fitting to the employment atmosphere. Women should avoid wearing dresses for the interview. Women should wear dress pants or a skirt, blouse, and matching jacket, or a pants suit, and avoid necklines more than four fingers below the high point of your sternum. Patent leather or athletic shoes should not be worn by either sex. Shoes should coordinate with your clothing and should be flats or low heels. Avoid noisy shoes. Wear professional colour such as navy, black, or grey. Do not wear a white, yellow, or chartreuse jacket. Your shirt or blouse should be white, light blue, or a pastel colour. Men should wear a tie that coordinates with the jacket and pants and wear a belt that matches shoe colour. In today’s liberal workforce, unisex clothing is readily available, and some of it looks sharp. However, in the interview process, make sure your clothing is cut to fit your body style. Accessories should be moderate, with no visible necklaces or dangling earrings. Cologne and perfume should be very subdued. For men and women, exposed body piercings in your nose, lips, and tongues and multiple sets of earrings should not be worn at the interview.
      9. Personal choices should be used on personal time or when found to be acceptable. Otherwise, you could jeopardize your employment opportunity. Keep in mind, you are applying for a job, and you do not know the preference of the company or the interviewer. The company makes the rules. Do not try to change policy if you want to keep your place. Observe the company dress code, so you know how to dress when you are employed.As a new hire, you should dress conservatively even if you see others are wearing jeans and polo shirts. If every- one wears shirts and ties, you do the same and make sure you have a jacket. Having a jacket or sport coat is good in case you need to attend a meeting. If the job requires you to go to manufacturing or to the field, you should have an appropriate change of clothes or cover-up. Finally, regardless of the dress code, keep a change of clothes in your car and be ready for an emergency dress up or dress down in a few minutes.
      10. Self-improvement is a good investment in the job. Research on work, processes, clients, and another project-related issue while on your own time. This can improve your production, broaden your mind, discover new project ideas, find software solutions and production methods, or network with other professionals.
      11. Most employment communication is proprietary and should not be discussed with anyone other than your supervisor or involved co-workers. Do not take information from work to home, unless approved by your supervisor.
      12. Write personal e-mails and make personal phone calls after work or on your personal cell phone outside the of- fice during break or at lunch. Using company equipment and company time is only for company business.
      13. After employment, you need to start preparing for you next move up the career ladder. Your employer may offer educational benefits. If you have access to the Internet at home, you can do webinars and take online training and technical training or expand your formal education. Your new knowledge, ability to speak on the technical subjects, and performance at work indicate your improvement without bragging. Provide information about your expanded learning during your annual reviews.
      14. Completion of your education is only one step in the overall progression of your career track. You should seek industry certification with a professional organization. Certification is based on industry standards and required knowledge at a specific level in the profession, and it is offered by industry organizations who are experts in the field. Certification competencies provide minimum performance and knowledge levels to your employer. Certifications can be related to software, codes, standards, technical writing, and other subjects. Additional training reinforces your abilities and your employability.
      15. Keep a work journal as an organizational tool and to improve your growth as a professional. Include specific assignment information, assignment performance, individuals involved, specific times and places related to the assignment, when you go to lunch, change projects, talk to a co-worker about a previous project, or attend a meeting about a new project. Entries made by time and date will stand firm in a challenge. The more you document, the better.
      16. While in school and after, you should be a member of any professional organization that relates to your profession. ADDA and Skills USA offer student memberships for the drafting profession. By being involved in professional associations, you will find a network of professionals who can assist you in every phase of your career path and offer opportunities, advice, and guidance you cannot receive anywhere else. As you leave your school and enter the workforce, you should retain your membership in the professional organization and become as active as possible.

      Most organizations provide you with professionally rewarding volunteer opportunities on committees and groups to assist the profession. As you gain experience, you will see yourself working on projects with little assistance, moving up the corporate steps, being given more responsibility and increased compensation, and having opportunities you hoped for when you were first employed.


      The following summarizes our profession:

      Drafting is the foundation and stepping-stone of any aspiring architect and engineer. It is a tedious profession, with days filled with non- stop drawing and making models of designs. It is through this process that one is able to learn to develop new skills and be introduced to styles that can be used as inspiration for personal design preferences in the future. Drafting moulds the builders and designers of the future. Drafting is the profession of the hardworking and the persevering, the patient and the creative, the ambitious and the proud.

      Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting. Contact Us for more info


      Structural Engineering Design




        cad Drafter working on cad stationThe term drafter commonly refers to a man or woman who is employed in the drafting profession. Other general-purpose titles include draftsperson, design drafter, drafting technician, engineering drafter, CADD operator, and CADD technician. A job title can also be discipline or task specific. For example, a cad drafter who works for a civil engineering firm is a civil drafter, civil engineering drafter, construction drafter, or civil CADD technician. Several industries and most engineering and architectural related fields require drafters.


        According to the Australian Department of Labor, most drafters work in the following industries:

        • Professional, scientific, and technical services.
        • Manufacturing
        • Construction
        • Administrative and support services.

        Drafters prepare technical drawings and plans used by production and construction workers to build everything from microchips to skyscrapers. Drafters’ drawings provide visual guidelines and show how to construct a product or structure. Drawings include technical details and specify dimensions, materials, and procedures. Drafters fill in technical details using drawings, rough sketches, specifications, and calculations made by engineers, surveyors, architects, or scientists. For example, many drafters use their knowledge of standardized building techniques to draw Notice edit the details of structures.

        Most drafters use CADD systems to prepare drawings. Accordingly, some drafters may be referred to as CADD operators. With CADD systems, drafters can create and store drawings electronically so that they can be viewed, printed, or programmed directly into automated manufacturing systems. CADD systems also permit drafters to prepare variations of a design quickly. Although drafters use CADD extensively, they still need knowledge of traditional drafting techniques in order to fully understand and explain concepts. Some use their understanding of engineering and manufacturing theory and standards to draw the parts of a machine; they determine design elements, such as the numbers and kinds of fasteners needed to assemble the machine. Drafters use technical handbooks, tables, calculators, and computers to complete their work.


        Drafting is a broad occupation. There are many drafting fields and several drafting or related occupations within each fi eld. The most common drafting fields include architecture, civil and electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, and industrial process-pipe drafting.

        Drafting, in general, has one basic description, but specific drafting areas have unique conceptual and skill characteristics. Drafters perform general duties described under the title of drafter in all drafting disciplines. Most drafters rely on knowledge of engineering or architectural principles, mathematical formulas, physical laws, and manufacturing or construction processes and limitations.

        Drafters typically work from analyzes, standards, specifi cations, sketches, engineering drawings, models, prototypes, verbal instructions, ideas, and related design data. Drafters then perform discipline and project specific tasks that require certain knowledge and skill. For example, an automotive design drafter requires knowledge of automotive vehicle design and manufacturing.
        Drafters often create a variety of drawings even though they may be employed in a certain fi eld or focus on a specific product. For example, an architectural drafter may be involved in preparing structural, electrical, plumbing, and civil drawings.

        A mechanical drafter may participate in simulation and analysis studies and create electronic drawings and technical illustrations. Drafters often work with a team, individuals of the same discipline, and others related to a specific project. For example, architectural drafters typically work with architects, architectural designers, and related architecture, engineering, and construction professionals.

        Aeronautical Cad Drafter

        aerospace cad drafter Aeronautical drafting is a specialization of mechanical drafting. Aeronautical drafters may create CADD models and drawings of aeroplanes, missiles, spacecraft, and components and related equipment, such as launch mechanisms.



        Architectural Cad Drafter

        Architectural cad Drafter  Architectural drafters prepare CADD models and drawings of the architectural and structural features of a building. The figure is an example of an architectural elevation. The figure shows examples of architectural details. Architectural drafters rely on knowledge of building materials, codes, construction methods, and engineering practices. Architectural drafters work from specifications, sketches, and rough drafts. Architectural drafters may specialize in a type of building, such as residential or commercial, or construction material, such as reinforced concrete, masonry, steel, or timber.

        Automotive Design Cad Drafter

        automative design cad drafterAutomotive design drafting is a specialization of mechanical drafting. Automotive design drafters develop working layouts and master drawings of automotive vehicle components, assemblies, and systems.




        Casting, Forging, and Mold Cad Drafter

        Casting, Forging, and Mold cad DrafterCasting, forging, and mould drafting is a specialization of mechanical drafting. Casting, forging, and mould drafters create CADD models and drawings for castings, forgings, and modelled parts. Castings, forgings, and moulded parts require special knowledge and attention to die and mould design, shrinkage allowances, and various other factors such as corner radii.



        Civil Cad Drafter

        Civil cad DrafterCivil drafters prepare CADD models and drawings used in construction or civil engineering projects, such as highways, bridges, pipelines, flood-control projects, and water and sewage systems. The figure shows an example of a civil subdivision plan. Civil drafters create topographical and relief maps, and plot maps and charts showing profiles and cross-sections, indicating the relation of topographical contours and elevations to buildings, retaining walls, tunnels, overhead power lines, and other structures.

        Civil drafters prepare detailed drawings of structures and installations, such as roads, culverts, fresh-water supplies, sewage-disposal systems, dikes, wharves, and breakwaters.

        Civil drafters also compute the volume of the tonnage of excavations and fills and prepare graphs and hauling diagrams used in earthmoving operations. Civil drafters may accompany survey crew in field to locate grading markers or to collect data required for revision of construction drawings. A topographical drafter is a civil drafter who specializes in drafting and modifying topographical maps from surveying notes and aerial photographs.

        Cartographic Cad Drafter

        Cartographic cad Drafter A cartographic drafter, also known as a cartographer, draws maps of geographical areas to show natural and constructed features, political boundaries, and other features. Cartographers collect, analyze, and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data. Cartographers research, study and prepare maps and other spatial data in digital or graphic form for legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. Cartographers may also work with and develop a geographic information system (GIS).

        Commercial Cad Drafter

        Commercial drafting is a specialization of architectural drafting. A commercial drafter, also known as a facilities drafter, is responsible for laying out the location of buildings, planning the arrangements of offices, large rooms, store buildings, and factories, and drawing charts, forms, and records. A commercial drafter may also create 3-D rendered models.

        Directional Survey Cad Drafter

         Direction survey drafting is a specialization of civil drafting. Directional survey drafters plot oil- or gas-well boreholes from photographic subsurface survey recordings and other data. Directional survey drafters compute and represent diameter, depth, degree, and direction of inclination, location of equipment, and other dimensions and characteristics of boreholes.

        Electrical Cad Drafter

        Electrical cad DrafterElectrical drafters generate CADD models and drawings of electrical equipment, wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, and layout drawings used by construction crews and repairers who erect, install, and repair electrical equipment and wiring in communications centres, power plants, industrial establishments, commercial and domestic buildings, and electrical distribution systems. An electric-cable diagrammer is an electrical drafter who specializes in preparing detail cable layout and diagrams for cable installation.


        Electronic Cad Drafter

        Electronic cad DrafterElectronic drafters produce CADD models and drawings, such as wiring diagrams, layout drawings, mechanical detail drawings, and drawings of intermediate and final assemblies that are used in manufacturing, assembling, installing, and repairing electronic devices and components, printed circuit boards, and equipment. Electronic drafters examine electronic schematics and supporting documents received from design engineering departments to develop, compute, and verify specifications in drafting data, such as configuration of parts, dimensions, and tolerances.

        Geological Cad Drafter

        Geological drafters draw maps, diagrams, profiles, cross-sections, directional surveys, and subsurface formations to represent geological or geophysical stratigraphy and locations of gas and oil deposits. Geological drafters correlate and interpret data obtained from topographical surveys, well logs, and geophysical prospecting reports and use special symbols to denote geological and geophysical formations or oil field installations.

        Geophysical Cad Drafter

        Geophysical drafters draw subsurface contours in rock formations from data obtained by geophysical prospecting. Geophysical drafters plot maps and diagrams from computations based on recordings of seismographs, gravity meters, magnetometers, and other petroleum-prospecting instruments and from prospecting and surveying field notes. Geophysical drafters some- times receive a title such as a seismograph drafter, according to a specific method of prospecting.

        Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Cad Drafter

        HVAC cad Drafter Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning drafters generally work for an HVAC engineering firm developing contract documents from engineering schematics. HVAC drafting may involve light design work in sizing and routing systems to conform to the allotted space with the building structure, as well as calculating heat loss and heat gain for buildings for use in determining equipment specifications. HVAC drafting may also involve trade-to-trade coordination on an elemental level.

        A refrigeration drafter specializes in drawing plans for the installation of refrigeration equipment. A detail drafter, or detailer, works for an HVAC contractor developing 3-D models, detailed shop and installation drawings, performing trade-to-trade coordination to a finished degree and developing fabrication cut sheets. Detailers can also be involved in download to or input into a sheet metal fabrication software program.

        Industrial Process-Pipe Cad Drafter

         An industrial process-pipe drafter—also known as an industrial pipe drafter, a piping drafter, and a pipeline drafter— prepares CADD models and drawings used in the layout, construction, and operation of oil and gas fields, refineries, chemical plants, and process piping systems.

        Industrial process-pipe drafters develop detail drawings for the construction of equipment and structures, such as drilling derricks, compressor stations, and gasoline plants; frame, steel, and masonry buildings; piping manifolds and pipeline systems; and for the manufacture, fabrication, and assembly of machines and machine parts.

        Industrial process-pipe drafters prepare maps to represent geological stratigraphy, pipeline systems, and oil and gas locations, using field survey notes, geological and geophysical prospecting data, and aerial photographs.

        An oil and gas drafter is an industrial process-pipe drafter who specializes in oil and gas industrial pipe drafting.

        Landscape Cad Drafter

        Landscape drafters prepare CADD models and drawings from rough sketches or other data provided by landscape architects. Landscape drafters may prepare separate detailed site plans, grading and drainage plans, lighting plans, paving plans, irrigation plans, planting plans, and drawings and details of garden structures. Landscape drafters may build models of proposed landscape construction and prepare coloured drawings for presentation to clients.

        Mechanical Cad Drafter

        Mechanical cad DrafterThe manufacturing industry uses mechanical drafting, its name derived from mechanisms. The construction industry also uses mechanical drafting, but the term refers to drafting HVAC systems, which is the mechanical portion of an architectural project.

        In general, mechanical drafting is the core of the engineering drafting industry. The terms engineering drawing and engineering drafting used throughout all drafting disciplines.

        A mechanical drafter, also known as an engineering drafter, is a drafter associated with mechanical drafting for the manufacturing industry.

        Mechanical drafters create CADD models and drawings of machinery and mechanical devices, indicating dimensions and tolerances, fastening and joining methods, and other engineering data and requirements. Mechanical drafters draw multiple-view part, assembly, subassembly, and layout drawings as required for manufacture and repair of machines and equipment. The figure shows an example of a part drawing.

        Marine Cad Drafter

        Marine drafting is a specialization of mechanical and structural drafting. Marine drafters develop CADD models and drawings of structural and mechanical features of ships, docks, and other marine structures and equipment.

        Patent Cad Drafter

         Patent drafters prepare clear and accurate drawings of varied sorts of mechanical devices for use of a patent lawyer in obtaining patent rights. The “Patents” section toward the end of this chapter provides additional information on patents and patent drawings.


        Photogrammetrists analyze source data and prepare mosaic prints, contour-map profi le sheets, and related cartographic materials that require technical mastery of photogrammetric techniques and principles.

        Photogrammetrists prepare original maps, charts, and drawings from aerial photographs and survey data and apply standard mathematical formulas and photogrammetric techniques to identify, scale, and orient geodetic points, estimations, and other planimetric or topographic features and cartographic detail.

        Photogrammetrists graphically represent aerial photographic detail, such as contour points, hydrography, topography, and cultural features, using precision stereo plotting apparatus or drafting instruments.

        Photogrammetrists revise existing maps and charts and correct maps in various states of compilation. Photogrammetrists also prepare rubber, plastic, or plaster 3-D relief models.

        Plumbing Cad Drafter

         A plumbing drafter, also known as a pipe drafter, specializes in CADD models and drawings for installing plumbing and piping equipment in residential, commercial, and industrial settings. Commercial and industrial piping relate closely to industrial process-pipe drafting.

        Structural Cad Drafter

        Structural cad DrafterStructural drafters create CADD models and drawings for structures that use reinforcing steel, concrete, masonry, wood, and other structural materials. Structural drafters produce plans and details of foundations, building frame, floor and roof framing, and other structural elements.

        A detail drafter, or detailer, works for a structural contractor developing 3-D models, detailed shop drawings, and installation drawings, performing trade-to-trade coordination to a finished degree, and developing fabrication drawings. Detailers may also be involved in downloading to or inputting into a structural component fabrication software.

        Technical Illustrator

        Technical illustrators layout and draw illustrations for reproduction in reference works, brochures, and technical manuals dealing with assembly, installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of machines, tools, and equipment.

        Technical illustrators prepare drawings from blueprints, design mockups, and photographs by methods and techniques suited to specified reproduction process or final use, photo-offset, and projection transparencies, using drafting and optical equipment.

        Technical illustrators create schematic, perspective, axonometric, orthographic, and oblique-angle views to depict functions, relationships, and assembly sequences of parts and assemblies such as gears, engines, and instruments.

        Technical illustrators also create rendered drawings and 3-D models, and they may draw cartoons and caricatures to illustrate operation, maintenance, and safety manuals and posters.

        Tool-and-Die Design Cad Drafter

        Tool-and-die design drafting is a specialization of mechanical drafting. Tool-and-die design drafters prepare CADD models and detailed drawing plans for manufacturing tools, usually following designs and specifications indicated by tool designers.


        The design and drafting profession can provide a rewarding career for people who enjoy detailed work and have a mechanical aptitude and ability to visualize. Math and communication skills are also important. The following information describes education and qualification requirements for an entry-level drafting position.

        High school courses in mathematics, science, computer technology, design, computer graphics, and drafting are useful for people considering a drafting career. However, employers in the drafting industry prefer applicants who have at least two years of postsecondary training in a drafting program that provides strong technical skills and considerable experience with CADD systems.

        Employers are most interested in applicants with a strong background in fundamental drafting principles;well-developed drafting skills; knowledge of drafting standards, mathematics, science, and engineering technology; a solid background in CADD techniques; and the ability to apply their knowledge to a broader range of responsibilities. Future students should contact prospective employers to ask which schools they prefer and contact schools to ask for information about the kinds of jobs their graduates have, the type and condition of instructional facilities and equipment available, and teacher qualifications.

        Many technical institutes, community colleges, and some four-year colleges and universities offer drafting programs. Technical institutes offer intensive technical training, but they provide a less general education than do community colleges Technical institutes may award either certificates or diplomas and programs can vary considerably in length and in the types of courses offered.

        Many technical institutes offer two-year associate degree programs. Community colleges offer programs similar to those in technical institutes but include more classes in drafting theory and also often require general education classes. After completing a two-year associate degree program, graduates may obtain jobs as drafters or continue their education in a related field at a four-year college. Most four-year colleges do not offer training in drafting, but they do offer classes in engineering, architecture, and mathematics that are useful for obtaining a job as a drafter. Technical training obtained in the armed forces can also apply in civilian drafting jobs. Some additional training may be necessary, depending on the technical area or military specialty.
        Mechanical drafting—the type of drafting done for the manufacturing industry—offers the fundamental standards involved in the design and drafting profession. However, there are a variety of design and drafting discipline categories. Training differs somewhat within the drafting specialties, although the basics, such as mathematics, are similar. In an electronics drafting program, for example, students learn how to show electronic components and circuits in drawings. In architectural drafting, students learn the technical specifi cations of buildings.

        Some educational programs provide training in specifi c disciplines, whereas others provide diversifi ed training in several areas. The opportunity to experience more than one discipline allows you to find an industry that you prefer.

        General Qualifications and Certification

        Mechanical ability and visual aptitude are important for drafters. Prospective drafters should be able to perform detailed work accurately. Artistic ability is helpful in some specialized fields, as is knowledge of manufacturing and construction methods. In addition, future drafters should have good interpersonal skills because they work closely with engineers, surveyors, architects, and other professionals and sometimes with customers.


        Opportunities for advancement for drafters are excellent, although dependent on the advancement possibilities of a specific employer. Advancement also depends on your skill, initiative, ability, product knowledge, attitude, ability to communicate, continued education, and enthusiasm.

        Entry-level or junior drafters usually do routine work under close supervision. After gaining experience, drafters may become intermediate drafters and progress to more difficult work with less supervision. At the intermediate level, drafters may need to exercise more judgment and perform calculations when preparing and modifying drawings. Drafters may eventually advance to senior drafter, designer, or supervisor.

        An entry-level drafting position may not be in your chosen field, but you should be able to find employment in your desired area with experience and an open job market. Opportunities are available that allow people to expand career potential into related areas such as tool design and cartography. Many people who enter the drafting industry begin to move up quickly into the design, checking, purchasing, estimating, and management.

        Many employers pay for continuing education. Additional education for advancement usually includes increased levels of mathematics, pre-engineering, engineering, software, and advanced drafting. Appropriate college degrees may allow drafters to go on to become engineering technicians, engineers, or architects. Drafting has traditionally been an excellent way of designing, engineering, and management.


        cad Drafter employmentDrafting job opportunities, which include all possible drafting employers, fluctuate with national and local economies. Employment as a drafter remains tied to industries that are sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy, primarily construction and manufacturing.

        A slowdown or speedup in construction and manufacturing nationally affects the number of drafting jobs available. The economic effect on drafting job opportunities also occurs at the local level or with specific industries. For example, construction may be strong in one part of the country and slow in another, so the demand for drafters in those localities is strong or slow accordingly.

        Fewer drafters are required when large manufacturers, such as automobiles, experience poor sales. More drafters are required when industries such as high-tech expand. In addition, a growing number of drafters should continue to find employment on a temporary or contract basis as more companies turn to the employment services industry to meet their changing needs.

        Local demands also generally control the types of drafting jobs available. Each local area usually has a need for more of one type of drafting skill than another. In general, metropolitan areas where manufacturing is strong offer more mechanical drafting jobs than rural areas, which typically offer more civil or structural drafting jobs than other disciplines. Drafting curriculums in different geographical areas usually specialize in the fields of drafting that help fill local employment needs.

        A broader range of opportunities exists in many local areas because of the flexibility of electronic data transfer, making it possible to complete tasks worldwide. Some drafting programs offer a broad-based education so graduates can have versatile employment opportunities. When selecting a school, research curriculum, placement potential, and local demand. Talk to representatives of local industries for an evaluation of the drafting curriculum.


        Entry-level drafting positions require you to be prepared to meet the needs and demands of the industry. Entry into the drafting career marketplace depends on your training and ability and on the market demand. Your training, skills, and personal presentation are especially important in a poor economic environment, and these can make the difference in finding an employment opportunity.

        cad drafter Drafting job searchA two-year, postsecondary degree in drafting can also provide a big advantage when seeking a position in the drafting industry. Programs of this type normally have a quality cross-section of training in design and drafting, math, and communication skills. Two-year, postsecondary drafting programs often have a job- preparation and placement services to aid their graduates.

        Many of these schools have direct industry contacts that help promote hiring opportunities. Training programs also often have cooperative work experience (CWE) or internships in which their students work in the industry for a designated period while completing degree requirements.

        These positions allow a company to determine if the student is a possible candidate for full-time employment and provide the student with valuable on-the-job experience to include on a résumé. Even if you do not go to work for the company where you do CWE or an internship, you can get a letter of recommendation for your portfolio.

        When the local economy is doing well and drafting job opportunities are plentiful, it may be possible to find a job with less than a two-year college degree. If you want to find entry-level employment in a job market of this type, you can take intensive training in CADD practices. The actual amount of training required depends on how well you do and whether you can match an employer who is willing to hire with your level of training. Many people have entered the industry in this manner, although you would be well advised to continue schooling toward a degree while you are working.

        Job-Seeking Strategy

         The following are some points to consider when you are ready to seek employment:

        • Get your résumé in Take a résumé-preparation course or get some help from your instructors or a career counsellor. Your résumé must be quality and professional representation of you. When an employer has many résumés, the best stands out.
        • Write an application or cover letter. You can receive help with an application or cover letter from the same people who help with your résumé. Write a professional and clear application letter that is short, to the point, and lists the reasons why you would be an asset to the company.
        • Prepare a portfolio. Your portfolio should contain examples of school and industry drawings that you have Neatly organize the drawings and select examples that help you target the specific industry discipline that you are seek- ing. For example, include mechanical models and drawings if you are interviewing with a company in the manufacturing industry. Display architectural models and drawings if you are interviewing with an architect or building designer. Include letters of recommendation from employers and instructors with your portfolio.
        • Register with the department, school, and state employment service. Watch the employment ads in local newspapers and check out Internet employment sites.
        • Make a realistic decision about the type of place where you want to work and the salary and benefits you really think you should Base these decisions on sound judgment. Your instructors should have this information for the local job market. Do not make salary your first issue when seeking a career position. The starting salary is often just the beginning of many companies. Consider advancement potential. A drafting technology position often is a stepping- stone to many opportunities, such as design, engineering, and management.
        • Research prospective companies to learn about their business or The Internet is a good place to seek information because most companies have a Web site. This type of research can help you during an interview.
        • Be prepared when you get First impressions are critical. You must look your best and present yourself well. Always be on time or early. Relax as much as you can. Answer questions clearly and to the point, but with enough detail to demonstrate that you know what you are talking about. It is often unwise to talk too much. Show off your portfolio. Be prepared to take a CADD test or demonstrate your skills.
        • Ask intelligent questions about the company during an interview because you need to decide if you want to work, For example, you may not want to work for a company that has no standards, poor working conditions, and pirated software. You might prefer to work for a company that has professional standards and CADD systems, a pleasant work environment, and advancement possibilities.
        • Respond quickly to job The employment marketplace is often very competitive. You need to be prepared and move quickly. Follow whatever instructions an employer gives for you to apply. Sometimes employers want you to go in person to fill out an application, and sometimes they want you to e-mail, fax, or mail a résumé. Either way, you can include your application letter and résumé. Sometimes employers want you to call for a preinterview screening.
        • In an active economy, it is common to get more than one If you get an offer from a company, take it if you have no doubts. However, if you are uncertain, ask for 24 or 48 hours to make a decision. If you get more than one offer, weigh the options carefully. There are advantages and disadvantages to every possibility. Make a list of the advantages and disadvantages of each company for careful consideration.

        Employment Opportunities on the Internet

         The Internet is a valuable place to seek employment. There are hundreds of Web sites available to help you prepare for and find a job. Many Web sites allow you to apply for jobs and post your resume for possible employers.

        Some employers screen applicants over the Internet. The only caution is that any Internet-displayed personal information is available for anyone to read. However, some Web sites such as provide a safe place to post your résumé for only employers to review. You should always confirm that the terms of the agreement provide you with a safe place to search for employment.


        Salaries in drafting professions are comparable to salaries of other professions with equal educational requirements. Employment benefits vary according to each employer. However, most employers offer vacation and health insurance coverage, and some include dental, life, and disability insurance.

        Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting. Contact Us for more info

        Importance of Reusability in CADD

        reusability in cadd

        Importance of Reusability in CADD

        reuse cadReusability is one of the important advantages of CADD. With CADD, it is never necessary to draw anything more than once. Developing a CADD symbols library further enhances the ability to reuse content. Building a parts library for reusability has increased productivity, decreased development costs, and set the highest standards for quality at the Test and Measurement Documentation Group at Tektronix, Inc. The parts library began by reusing 3-D isometric parts created by the CADD illustrator and saved as symbols in a parts library directory. By pathing the named symbols back to this library directory, each symbol becomes accessible to any directory and drawing file. This allows the CADD illustrator to insert library symbols into any drawing by selecting named symbols from the directory.

        The illustrator adds new parts to the library as a product is disassembled and illustrated. Each part is given the next available number as its symbol name in the library as shown in Figure.

        cad reuseOriginally, the CADD drawings were combined with text (written using Microsoft Word) in desktop-publishing software to create technical publications. Now, the CADD drawings are added to document files in specialized technical-publishing software. The entire parts library is available to both CADD and technical-publication software users (see Figure).

        From the point of view of cost management, the parts library has saved hundreds of hours of work. From the illustrator’s view, the parts library helps improve productivity and frees time for new or complex projects.


        Design Reusability In Solidworks

        “I know that part’s here somewhere… I think I saved it in the XXX project folder…  We designed a similar assembly last year…” Sound familiar? If you’ve ever spent time hunting for previous designs or recreated the same content multiple times, you’re not alone. Fortunately, SOLIDWORKS includes powerful capabilities that minimize this pain and help you get your job done fast.

        Design Library

        • Includes out of the box standard mechanical design content (like o-ring grooves, keyways, sheet metal punches, etc.)
        • Windows folder structure – easy to organize and share with co-workers
        • Easily add content you re-use (like drawing notes, feature sets, purchased parts and assemblies, company logos, welding symbols, start parts, and much more)

        SOLIDWORKS Toolbox

        • Included with SOLIDWORKS professional and premium (turn on the add-in)
        • Thousands of standard hardware components (o-rings, nuts, bolts, washers, gears, retaining rings, bearings, pins, and much more)
        • Fully configured with all standard sizes and lengths
        • Autosize to your corresponding features
        • Can add BOM details and custom components using the “Configure Toolbox” wizard

        Integrated SOLIDWORKS Search

        • Setup all locations you want to index
        • Tools > Options > System Options > File Locations > Search Paths
        • Set options like when to index and whether to show 3DCC results
        • Tools > Options > System Options > Search
        • Use the keyboard shortcut “I” to activate the search

        3D Content Central

        • Free online resource
        • Thousands of vendors with configurable and downloadable 3D files and tons of user-uploaded content too
        • Preview 3D files right in the browser
        • Use integrated SOLIDWORKS search (if 3DCC set to show in results)
        • Drop right into SOLIDWORKS

        Mate References

        • Add to any part or assembly you will re-use and want to snap into position
        • Use a circular edge between a cylindrical and planar face to get both concentric and coincident mates added.
        • Add up to 3 references and name the mate reference to get it to find mating components automatically. Just use the same name for the mate reference in the mating part.  Put into an assembly and they will snap together like magic.

        Smart Components

        • Allow you to insert features, parts, or both. Think mounting holes and hardware for example.
        • Features can include full tolerances that will carry over.
        • Use a simple setup assembly when creating the smart component (I store them in my design library).
        • Create: edit the part in the context of the setup assembly and use Tools > Make Smart Component.
        • Use: insert and position the part in your assembly. Click the smart component icon in the graphics or right-click the part > Insert Smart Features.  Select what to include and any references needed.

        Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting. Contact Us for more info


        design and drafting services



        Most industries, schools, and companies establish standards, which are guidelines that specify drawing requirements, appearance, and techniques, operating procedures, and record-keeping methods. The Australian Standards defines the term standard as a set of technical definitions and guidelines, how-to instructions for designers, manufacturers, and users. Standards promote safety, reliability, productivity, and efficiency in almost every industry that relies on engineered components or equipment. Standards can be as short as a few paragraphs or hundreds of pages long, but experts write them with knowledge and expertise in a particular field who sit on many committees. The Australian Standards defines the term code as a standard that one or more governmental bodies adapt and has the force of law. Standards are considered voluntary because they serve as guidelines. Standards become mandatory when a business contract or regulations incorporate them.

        Standards are important for engineering communication because they serve as a common language, defining quality and establishing safety criteria. Costs are lower, and training is simplified when procedures are standardized. Interchangeability is another reason for standardization, so a part manufactured in one location fits with a mating part manufactured in another location.

        Drawing standards apply to most settings and procedures, including:

        • CADD file storage, naming, and
        • File templates, which are files that contain standard file settings and objects for use in new files.
        • Units of
        • Layout
        • Borders and title
        • Symbols
        • Layers, and text, table, dimension, and another drafting
        • Plot styles and plotting

        Company or school drawing standards should follow appropriate national industry standards. Though standards vary in content, the most important aspect is that standards exist and are understood and used by all design and drafting personnel. When you follow drawing standards, drawings are consistent, you become more productive, and the classroom or office functions more efficiently.

        Australian Drafting Standards

        The standards Australia is a professional engineering organization for mechanical engineering. The standards Australia publishes standards documents sponsors technical conferences and educational programs and conducts professional development courses. The standards Australia is an accredited standard developing organization that meets the requirements of various codes.

        The standards Australia publishes standards for numerous disciplines. Most standards Australia standards that focus on specific areas of engineering drawing and related practices receive the designation.

        ISO Drafting Standards

        The ISO is an international organization that currently includes members from 163 countries. Australia is a member. The ISO provides an extensive list of drafting standards and related documents. The ISO 2768 standard, General Tolerances, details specific ISO dimensioning and tolerancing practices. This standard is particularly important when preparing a metric drawing according to Australian standards because the ISO normally controls metric tolerancing. A general note that states the ISO 2768 class for general tolerances, such as ISO 2768-m, shall be placed on the drawing. For more information or to order standards, go to the ISO Web site at

        CADD Skill Standards

        The Computer-Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) skill standards, developed in cooperation with the National occupational skill standards, summarizes CADD occupation skills generic to all CADD disciplines, software, and entry-level.

        AS 1100

        AS 1100 is an Australian Standard for technical drawing including both mechanical and architectural designs. AS 1100 standard drawings contain attributes that are universal around Australia. Standards Australia publishes the standard.

        The standard consists of six parts,

        • Part 101: General principles (1992)
        • Part 201: Mechanical engineering drawing (1992)
        • Part 301: Architectural drawing (2008)
        • Part 401: Engineering survey and engineering survey design drawing (1984)
        • Part 501: Structural engineering drawing (2002)

        You cannot view these without purchasing a licence first.

        Acronyms and Abbreviations in Engineering


        A – Ampere
        A/C – Air Conditioning
        A/H – After Hours
        AB – As-Built
        ABBR – Abbreviation
        ABS – Absolute
        ADD – Addendum
        AEC – Architecture, Engineering, and Construction
        AF – Across Flats
        AFL – Above Floor Level
        AFL – Above Finished Level
        AG – Agricultural pipe drain
        AGL – Above Ground Level
        AHD – Australian Height Datum
        AHU – Air Handler Unit
        APPROX – Approximately or Approximate
        ARRGT – Arrangement
        AS – Australian Standard
        ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
        ASSD – Assumed Datum
        ASSY – Assembly
        ATF – Along Top Flange
        AUTO – Automatic
        AUX – Auxillary
        AVG – Average


        B – Basin or Bottom
        BLDG – Building
        BNS – Business Network Services
        BOT – Bottom
        BQ – Bendable Quality
        BRG – Bearing
        BRS – Brass
        BSP – British Standard Pipe
        BT – Bath Tub
        BT – Boundary Trap
        BTM – Bottom
        BW – Both Ways


        C – C shaped steel purlin
        C/C – Cross Centres
        CAD – Computer-Aided Design.
        Less commonly use is Computer Assisted Drafting.
        CAM – Computer Aided Manufacture
        CAP – Capacity
        CBORE – Counterbore
        CCTV – Closed Circuit Television
        CFW – Continuous Fillet Weld
        CHAM – Chamfer
        CHCL – Channel
        CH HD – Cheese Head
        CHS – Circular Hollow Section
        CI – Cast Iron
        CIRC – Circumference or Circle
        C.J. OR CJ – Control Joint (or Construction Joint)
        CL – Center Line
        CLG – Control Joint
        CLR – Clearance
        CMU – Cement Masonry Unit
        CNC – Computer Numerical Control
        CNR – Corner
        CNJ – Construction Joint
        COEF – Coefficient
        COL – Column
        COMMS – Communications
        CONC – Concentric
        CONN – Connection
        CONT – Continuous
        CP – Chrome Plated
        C REC HD – Cross-Recess Head
        CRS – Colled Rolled Steel
        CTRS – Centres
        CS – Cleaners Sink
        CS – Cast Steel
        CKS – Countersink
        CSK HD – Countersunk Head
        CT – Controller
        CTR – Contour
        CTR(S) – Centre/S
        CTRL – Control
        CTRS – Centers
        CU – Dental Cuspidor
        CUP HD – Cup Head
        CVR – Cover
        CYL – Cylinder
        °C – Degrees Celsius


        DAR – Dressed All Round
        DD – Design Drawing
        DED – Dedendum
        DET – Detail
        DIA – Diameter
        DIAG – Diagram
        DIAG – Diagonal
        DICL – Ductile Iron Cement Lined (pipe)
        DIST – Distance
        DIM – Dimension
        DN – Diameter Nominal
        DP – Down Pipe
        DP – Diametral Pitch
        DR – Dryer
        DRG – Drawing
        DW – Dishwasher
        DWG – Drawing
        DWG(S) – Drawing/S


        E – Modulus of Elasticity
        EA – Equal Angle (steel)
        EF – Each Face
        E.J. or EJ – Expansion Joint
        EL – Elevated Level
        EL – Elevation
        ELEC – Electrical
        ELEV – Elevation
        EQ – Equal
        EQUIP – Equipment
        EQUIV – Equivalent
        EW – Each Way
        EWB – Electric Water Boiler
        EWC – Electric Water Cooler
        EXT – External


        FB – Footing Beam
        F’c – Characteristic Concrete Strength
        FCU – Fan Coil Unit
        FFL – Finished Floor Level
        FHR – Fire Hose Reel
        FIQ – Figure
        FILL HD – Fillister Head
        FL – Floor Level
        FL – Flat or Flat Plate
        FLG – Flange
        FOC – Fibre Optic Cable
        FS – Far Side
        FSBL – Full Strength Butt Weld
        FTG – Footing
        FTP – Fibre Termination Panel (fibre optical cable)
        FW – Fillet Weld
        FWF – From Web Face (steel)


        GA – General Arrangement
        GALV – Galvanized
        GCI – Galvanized corrugated iron.
        GD – Grid
        GI – Galvanized Iron
        GIP – Galvanized Iron Pipe
        GIS – Graphic Information System
        GPO – General Purpose Outlet
        GR – Grade
        GRF – Geometric Reference Frame
        GSM – Global System of Moblie or “Groupe Speciale Mobile” in French


        H – Prewash Hose Reel
        HD – Head
        HEX HD – Hexagon Head
        HEX SOC HD – Hexagon Socket Head
        HOR – Horizontal
        HORIZ – Horizontal
        HP – High Pressure
        HRA – Rockwell Hardness A
        HRB – Rockwell Hardness B
        HRC – Rockwell Hardness C
        HS – High Strength
        HT – Height
        HTS – High-Tensile Steel
        HV – Diamond Pyramid Hardness Number (Vickers)
        HWB – Hair Wash Basin


        I – Moment of Inertia
        ID – Inside Diameter
        IE – Invert Elevation
        I.J. or IJ – Isolation Joint
        IL – Invert Level
        INT – Internal
        IO – Inspection Opening
        IP – Intersection Point
        ISO – International Standard Organisation


        JIS – Japanese Industry Standard
        JT – Joint
        JUNC – Junction


        kHz – Kilohertz
        K.J. or KJ – Key Joint
        KS – Kitchen Sink
        KWh – Kilo Watt Hour (metre)


        L – Steel Angle
        LAN – Local Area Network
        LG – Length
        LGX – Line Group Cross (Connector, fibre optical cable)
        LH – Left Hand
        LMC – Least Material Condition
        LONG – Longitudinal
        LPG – Liquid Petroleum Gas
        LT – Laundry Trough


        m – Metres (English) or Meters
        MATL – Material
        MAX – Maximum
        M/C – Machine
        MDF – Main Distribution Frame (Telecommunications)
        MFR – Manufacturer
        MHz – Megahertz
        Mickey Mouse – A toy project, of very low quality.
        MI – Malleable Iron
        MIN – Minimum
        MISC – Miscellaneous
        M.J. or MJ – Movement Joint
        mm – Millimetres
        MMC – Maximum Material Condition
        MOD – Modification
        MS – Mild Steel
        MTG – Mounting
        MUSH HD – Mushroom Head


        NC – Normally Closed
        NEG – Negative
        NET – Network
        No. – Number
        NOM – Nominal
        NS – Near Side
        NS – Nominal Size
        N.S.O.P. – Not Shown On Plan
        NTS – Not To Scale
        NZS – New Zealand Standard


        OA or O/A – Overall
        OCT – Octagon
        OD – Outside Diameter
        OPT – Optional


        P – Pipe
        PA – Pressure Angle
        PAR – Parallel
        PATT – Pattern
        PCD – Pitch Circle Diameter
        PFC – Parallel Flange Channel
        PL – Plate
        PL – Pipeline
        POS – Positive
        POSN – Position
        PREFAB – Prefabricated
        PT – Pressure Tapping
        PT – Part
        PVC – Poly Vinyl Chloride
        uPVC – UV Stabilized Poly Vinyl Chloride


        QTY – Quantity


        R – Radius
        Ra – Roughness Value
        RAD – Radius or radial
        RD – Round
        REF – Reference
        RECT – Rectangular
        REINF – Reinforcement
        REQ’D or REQD – Required
        REV – Revision
        RH – Right Hand
        RHS – Rectangular Hollow Section (rarely Rolled Holled Section)
        RL – Reduced Level or Relative Level
        RO – Reverse Osmosis (water treatment)
        RSA – Rolled Steel Angle
        RSC – Rolled Steel Channel
        RSD CSK HD – Raised Countersunk Head
        RSJ – Rolled Steel Joist


        S – Snug fit or tightened (bolts)
        S – Sink
        SAN – Sanitary
        SDU – Sanitary Disposal Unit
        SECT – Section
        SF – Strip Footing
        SF – Spot Face
        SFL – Structural Finished Level
        SH – Sheet
        SHR – Shower
        SHS – Square Hollow Section
        SIM – Similar
        SK – Sketch
        SL – Structural Level
        SPT – Spigot
        SQ – Square
        SS or S/S – Stainless Steel
        SSL – Structural Slab Level
        ST – Steel
        STD – Standard
        SW – Switch


        T – Top
        TB – Tie Beam
        TB – Fully tensioned, bearing type (bolts)
        TEMP – Temperature
        TF – Fully tensioned, friction type (bolts)
        TFC – Taper Flange Channel
        THD – Thread
        THK – Thick
        TO or T.O. or T.OFF – Top Off
        TOL – Tolerance
        TP – Tangent Point
        TP – True Position
        TP – True Profile
        TR – Laundry Trough
        TUN – Tundish
        TYP – Typical


        U/S – Under Side
        UA – Unequal Angle (steel)
        UB – Universal Beam (steel)
        UC – Universal Column (steel)
        UCUT – Undercut
        UNO – Unless Noted Otherwise (UON is prefered)
        UON – Unless Otherwise Noted
        uPVC – Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride
        UR – Urinal


        VER – Vertical
        VERT – Vertical
        VOL – Volume


        WAN – Wide Area Network
        WB – Welded Beam (steel)
        WC – Welded Column (steel)
        WC – Water Closet (toilet).
        Where the poo and wee goes.
        WC(P) – Water Closet With ‘P’ Trap
        WC(S) – Water Closet With ‘S’ Trap
        WD – Working Drawing
        WM – Washing Machine
        WP – Water Proof or Work Point
        WI – Wrought Iron


        X – By. Example, “N12 x 1200 long” also means “N12 by 1200 long”.


        YP – Yield Point


        Z – Zulu (Greenwich Mean Time)
        Z – Z shaped steel purlin
        Z – Modulus of Section

        Other Characters

        °C – Degrees Celsius
        Ø – Diameter
        # – Number
        /tb – Fully tensioned, bearing type (bolts)
        /tf – Fully tensioned, friction type (bolts)
        /s – Snug fit or tightened (b

        Welding Symbols Chart

        Standards-Symbols-for-Welding-Bracing-and-Nondestructive-Examination Standards-Symbols-for-Welding-Bracing-and-Nondestructive-Examination-

        Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting. Contact Us for more info.


        Intellectual Property Rights and Patent Application

        drawing for patent application

        Intellectual Property Rights and Patent Application

        Intellectual Property Rights

        The success of a company often relies on the integrity of its employees. Products are normally the result of years of research, engineering, and development. This is referred to as the intellectual property of the company. Protection of intellectual property can be critical to the success of the company in a competitive industrial economy. This is why it is very important for employees to help protect design ideas and trade secrets. Many companies manufacture their products in strict, secure, and secret environments. You will often find proprietary notes on drawings that inform employees and communicate to the outside world that the information contained in the drawing is the property of the company and is not for use by others.

        Software Piracy

         Software piracy is the unauthorized copying of software. Most software licenses support use at one computer site or by one user at any time. When you buy software, you become a licensed user. You do not own the software. You are allowed to make copies of the program for backup purposes, but it is against the law to give copies to colleagues and friends. Software companies spend a lot of money creating software programs for your professional and personal applications. Each new release usually provides you with improved features and more efficient use. When you use software illegally, you hurt everyone by forcing software companies to charge more for their products. Ethically and professionally, use software legally and report illegal use when observed.


        A copyright is the legal rights given to authors of original works of authorship. The Australian Constitution establishes copyright and patent law and empowers the federal government to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. Copyrights control exclusively the reproduction and distribution of the work by others. In Australia, published or unpublished works that are typically copyrightable include:

        • Literary works, including computer programs and
        • Musical works, including any accompanying
        • Dramatic works, including any accompanying
        • Pantomimes and choreographic
        • Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural
        • Motion pictures and other audiovisual
        • Sound
        • Architectural works and certain other intellectual

        Copyright protection exists from the time the work is created in fixed form. The fixed form may not be directly observable; it can be communicated with the aid of a machine or device. The copyright in the work of authorship immediately becomes the property of the author who created the work. Copyright is secured automatically when the work is created, and the work is created when it is fixed in a copy or phono- recorded for the first time. Copies are material objects from which the work can be read or visually perceived directly or with the aid of a machine or device. A copyright notice can be placed on visually perceptible copies. The copyright notice should have the word Copyright, the abbreviation Copr., or the symbol © (or ® for phonorecords of sound recordings); the year of first publication; and the name of the owner of the copyright.


        A patent for an invention is the grant of a property right to the inventor, issued by the IP AUSTRALIA. The term of a new patent is 20 years from the date on which the application for the patent was filed in Australia or, in special cases, from the date an earlier related application was filed, subject to the payment of maintenance fees. The IP AUSTRALIA patent grants are effective only within Australia. The patent law states, in part, that any person who "invents or discovers any new and useful process, the machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof, may obtain a patent," subject to the conditions and requirements of the law.

        The patent law specifies that the subject matter must be "useful." The term useful refers to the condition that the subject matter has a useful purpose and must operate. You cannot patent laws of nature, physical phenomena, and abstract ideas. A complete description of the actual machine or other subject-matter is required to obtain a patent.

        Application for a Patent

         The IP AUSTRALIA offers standard and innovation patent applications. A standard patent application is for the full patent, which lasts 20 years. The innovation patent application is for a temporary patent that lasts for one year.

        Standard Application for a Patent

        According to the IP AUSTRALIA, a standard application for a patent is made to the assistant commissioner for patents and includes:

        1. a written document that has a specification and an oath or declaration,
        2. a drawing in those cases in which a drawing is necessary, and
        3. the filing fee.

        All application papers must be in the English language, or a translation into the English language is required. All application papers must be legibly written on only one side by either a typewriter or mechanical printer in a permanent dark ink or its equivalent in portrait orientation on flexible, strong, smooth, nonshiny, durable, white paper. Present the papers in a form having sufficient clarity and contrast between the paper and the writing to permit electronic reproduction. The application papers must all be the same size, either 21.0 cm by 29.7 cm (DIN size A4) or 21.6 cm by 27.9 cm (81¤2 3 11 in.). Application documents must have a top margin of at least 2.0 cm (3⁄4 in.), a left-side margin of at least 2.5 cm (1 in.), a right- side margin of at least 2.0 cm (3⁄4 in.), and a bottom margin of at least 2.0 cm (3⁄4 in.), with no holes made in the submit- ted papers. It is also required that the spacing on all papers be 11¤2 or double spaced, and the application papers must be numbered consecutively, centrally located above or below the text, starting with page 1. All required parts of the application must be complete before sending the application, and it is best to send all of the elements together. The IP AUSTRALIA numbers all applications received in serial order and the applicant will be informed of the application serial number and filing date by a filing receipt.

        Innovation Application for a Patent

        If you want protection for an invention with a short market life that might be superseded by newer innovations, such as computer-based inventions, an innovation patent is worth considering.

        An innovation patent lasts up to eight years and is designed to protect inventions that do not meet the inventive threshold required for standard patents. It is a relatively quick and inexpensive way to obtain protection for your new device, substance, method or process.

        The innovation patent requires an innovative step rather than an inventive step. An innovative step exists when the invention is different from what is known before, and the difference makes a substantial contribution to the working of the invention. The innovation patent protects an incremental advance on existing technology rather than being a groundbreaking invention.

        An innovation patent is usually granted within a month of filing the complete application. This is because there is no examination before it is granted.

        An innovation patent is only legally enforceable if it has been examined by us and found to meet the requirements of the Patents Act 1990, and has been certified. Examination of an innovation patent will only occur if requested by the patentee, a third party or if the Commissioner of Patents decides to examine the patent. The patentee will not be required to pay for examination until it is requested.

        Phase-out of the innovation patent

        The Australian Government has begun the process of phasing out the innovation patent with the passing of legislative amendments. This means:

        • The last day you can file a new innovation patent will be 25 August 2021.
        • Existing innovation patents that were filed on or before 25 August 2021 will continue in force until their expiry. This will ensure current rights holders are not disadvantaged.

        The Government remains committed to dedicated support services to help small and medium enterprises (SMEs) navigate the intellectual property (IP) system. Australian SMEs will receive further dedicated support, with an SME case management service, the SME fast track service, a dedicated outreach program and online portal, to be launched as the innovation patent is phased out over the next 18 months.

        The quick guide to innovation versus standard patents

        Innovation patent Standard patent
        Your invention must: Be new, useful and involve an innovative step. Be new, useful and involve an inventive step.
        The application should include: A title, description, up to five claims, drawings (if applicable), an abstract and forms. A title, description, any number of claims, drawings (if applicable), an abstract and forms.
        A patent is granted if: The application satisfies formality requirements (note: a 'granted' innovation patent cannot be enforced unless examined). The application is examined and found to satisfy the relevant requirements of the Patents Act 1990.
        Examination: Optional. The examination can be requested by you or anyone else. Mandatory. The relevant requirements of the Patents Act 1990 must be met before a patent is granted. Can only be requested by the applicant.
        Certification: Is given if the innovation patent complies with the relevant requirements of the Patents Act 1990 in the examination. Only after certification can the patent be enforced. N/A
        Publication in the Australian Official Journal of Patents: At grant and again at certification. Eighteen months from earliest priority date and again at acceptance.
        Protection period: Up to eight years if annual fees are paid. Up to 20 years if annual fees are paid (or up to 25 years for pharmaceuticals).
        How long does the process take? Approximately one month for the grant. Six months for examination if you make a request. Six months to several years depending on circumstances.

        Patent Drawings


        There is no requirement for a specific number of views. However, you must provide sufficient views to fully display your design, which usually requires a number of views.
        We prefer traditional views (front, side and top) but will also accept perspective or isometric views. (See image).

        All views must show exactly the same design. This particularly applies to colour, as colour is usually a visual feature of the design.


        Key points for drawings

        Drawings should:

        • be accurately drawn, not sketches, with well-defined line-work
        • only show the design in question and no descriptive wording or dimensions. However, labelling of views such as 'perspective view' or 'rear views' is acceptable
        • on A4 size paper if lodged by post
        • use broken or dashed lines when highlighting:
          • elements of the product other than those bearing the visual features of the design
          • parts of the design that are referred to in the statement of newness and distinctiveness
          • boundaries, such as a pattern applied to part of a surface, stitching and perforations
          • features that establish an environmental context.

        Shading and cross-hatching can be used to show a visual feature of the design.

        Key points for photographs or digital images

        Photographs or digital images should:

        • be clear originals
        • show the product against a plain contrasting background and avoid matter not relevant to the design
        • be A4 or mounted on A4 white paper if lodged by post.

        Other details

        If it's a multiple design application, then each design should be clearly indicated, with each design shown on a separate sheet.

        Complex products

        Sometimes a design is applied to a part of a complex product, and that part can be readily assembled and disassembled from that product. If the component part qualifies as a product, then broader protection may be gained by defining this as a stand-alone part.


        According to the IP AUSTRALIA publication Basic Facts About Registering a Trademark, a trademark is a word, phrase, symbol or design, or combination of words, phrases, symbols, or designs that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods or services of one party from those of others. A service mark is the same as a trademark except that it identifies and distinguishes the source of a service rather than a product. Normally, a mark for goods appears on the product or on its packaging, whereas a service mark appears in advertising for services. A trademark is different from a copyright or a patent. As previously explained, a copyright protects an original artistic or literary work, and a patent protects an invention.

        Trademark rights start from the actual use of the mark or the filing of a proper application to register a mark in the AUSTRALIA stating that the applicant has a genuine intention to use the mark in commerce regulated by the AUSTRALIA. Federal registration is not required to establish rights in a mark, nor is it required to begin use of a mark. However, federal registration can secure benefits beyond the rights acquired by just using a mark. For example, the owner of a federal registration is presumed to be the owner of the mark for the goods and services specified in the registration and to be entitled to use the mark nationwide. Generally, the first party who either uses a mark in commerce or files an application in the AUSTRALIA has the ultimate right to register that mark. The authority of the AUSTRALIA is limited to determining the right to register. The right to use a mark can be more complicated to determine, particularly when two parties have begun use of the same or similar marks without knowledge of one another and neither has a federal registration. Only a court can make a decision about the right to use. Federal registration can provide significant advantages to a party involved in a court proceeding. The AUSTRALIA cannot provide advice concerning rights in a mark. Only a private attorney can provide such advice.

        Trademark rights can last indefinitely if the owner continues to use the mark to identify its goods or services. The term of federal trademark registration is ten years, with ten-year renewal terms. However, between the fifth and sixth year after the date of initial registration, the registrant must file an official paper giving certain information to keep the registration alive. The registration is cancelled if this is not done. Please confirm specific trademark details and requirements with the AUSTRALIA.


        engineering drawing history


        Individuals with talent, wisdom, vision, and innovative ideas have influenced the history of engineering drawing. Major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport also greatly influenced the evolution of engineering drawing and had an overpowering effect on socioeconomic and cultural conditions between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Recently and more rapidly, computers have become a driving force in the way people create engineering drawings.

        Early Drawing Practices

        hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 1prehistoric humans created images on cave walls and rocks as a form of communication for hunting and gathering societies, to provide ritual or spiritual meaning, and for decoration.

        Prehistoric drawings and paintings, known as pictograms, and carvings, known as petroglyphs, show a variety of animals and human shapes. Pictograms and petroglyphs are not engineering drawings, but they do represent early graphic forms of communication. For thousands of years, designers of ancient structures and machines used sketches, drawings, and documents to represent inventions and architecture and help design and distribute information to workers. However, activities such as farming, craft making, and toolmaking, and construction generally followed established standards of the time without the use of formal drawings as a guide. Production was more like a form of art than engineering, and each item was unique.
        Early engineering drawings representing machines and buildings appear in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. These drawings were generally in the form of pictorial sketches with written descriptions that helped workers understand the intent of the drawings for fabrication or building. Early engineering drawings served as a reference for craft workers to construct a building or manufacture a product. Craft workers viewed the drawings and written descriptions and made interpretations based on their own experience and knowledge of current standard practices. Specific dimensions were not necessary, because each building or machine was different. Early engineering drawings were also an art form used during presentations to the persons who requested the designs.

        Engineering Drawing Pioneers

        hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 2Most early creators of engineering drawings were artists and inventors. Some of the best-known early engineering drawings are the work of Italian Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo is well known for his art, such as The Last Supper in 1498 and the Mona Lisa in 1507. He was also an inventor who designed machines such as the glider shown in Figure and military equipment such as the giant crossbow. Leonardo’s drawings were those of an artist and were not in the form of engineering drawings. Leonardo’s drawings were pictorial and generally without dimensions. No multiview drawings of Leonardo’s designs are known to exist. Multiview drawings are 2-D drawings of objects organized in views.
        Skilled tradespeople worked from the pictorial sketches and representations to construct models of many of Leonardo’s designs. Each machine or device was unique, and parts were not interchangeable. Leonardo was also an early mapmaker. In 1502, Leonardo created a map containing the town plan of Imola, Italy. Authorities commissioned Leonardo as the chief military engineer and architect because of this mapmaking. Arguably, this early work was more artistic than the beginning of engineering drawing, but this work holds a special place in history.
        Approximately the same time as Leonardo da Vinci created his drawings, awareness developed that drawings require greater accuracy and dimensions. An early author of architecture and engineering was an Italian man, Leon Battista Alberti. Leon’s writing covered a wide range of subjects, from architecture to town planning and from engineering to the philosophy of beauty. In 1435 and 1436, Leon also wrote two works that explored the need to incorporate more geometry in drawings. Leon also proposed drawings with multiple views rather than the commonly used pictorial drawings.
        The importance of using multiview two-dimension drawings was also influenced by the development of descriptive geometry in the work of French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596–1650) and the work of Frenchman Gaspard Monge (1746–1818). René was the inventor of the Cartesian coordinate system, and he founded analytic geometry, the link between algebra and geometry. The Cartesian coordinate system uses numerical coordinates to locate points in space according to distances measured in the same unit of length from three intersecting axes. The Cartesian coordinate system is the basis for establishing points when using CADD today.
        hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 3Gaspard Monge created a large-scale plan of a town using his own methods of observation and instruments that he designed. As a result, authorities commissioned Gaspard as a drafter and pupil in the practical school of the military institution. Given a project to design a proposed fortress, Gaspard used his geometrical method to create the design quickly. Continuing his research, Gaspard arrived at a graphic method of the application of geometry to construction, now called descriptive geometry. Descriptive geometry is the system of graphic geometry that uses plane projections to describe and analyze their properties for engineering drafting applications.






        hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 5Many early drafters had degrees in engineering and began to realize the importance of creating accurate and detailed engineering drawings. However, much of the drafting was in the form of line drawings, with watercolour paints used to high-light the drawings as shown in the architectural elevation of a home. Drawing continued to be basic line drawings with little dimensioning practice. An example is the early architectural floor plans shown in Figure used to construct a home. Craft workers also followed architectural details such as the gable design shown in Figure. There were few if any dimensions and standards, so each building was similar but different. This practice lasted until the early part of the twentieth century.




        hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 4Into the late 1800s and early 1900s, inventors, engineers, and builders worked on each product on a one-of-a-kind basis. Manufactures produced parts from hand sketches or hand drawings on blackboards. American engineer and inventor Coleman Sellers, in the manufacture of fire engines, had blackboards with full-size drawings of parts. Blacksmiths formed parts and compared them to the shapes on the blackboards. Coleman Sellers son, George Sellers, recalls lying on his belly using his arms as a radius for curves as his father stood over him direct-ing changes in the sketches until the drawings were satisfactory. Most designs used through the 1800s began as a hand sketches of the objects to be built. Workers then converted the sketches into wooden models from which patterns were constructed. Some companies followed this practice well into the twentieth century. An example is Henry Ford and his famous blackboards. What was new, though, was that the blackboards were also the Henry Ford drafting tables. Henry would sketch cars and parts three-dimensionally and have pattern makers construct full-size wooden models.




        The Influence of Interchangeability

        The Industrial Revolution was a period from the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries when major changes took place in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport. The need for interchangeability in manufactured products became important during the Industrial Revolution. Interchangeability refers to parts manufactured identically within given tolerances. interchangeable parts are produced to specifications that make sure they are so nearly identical that they fit into any product for which they are designed. One part can replace another of the same part without custom fitting. Interchangeability allows easy assembly of new products and easier repair of exist- ing products while minimizing the time and skill required for assembly and repair.

        The application of interchangeability started with the firearms industry. Before the eighteenth century, gunsmiths made guns one at a time, and each gun was unique. If one component of a firearm needed to be replaced, the entire weapon was sent back to the gunsmith for custom repairs or the firearm was discarded. The idea of replacing these methods with a system of interchangeable manufacture gradually developed during the eighteenth century. Interchangeability was not realized except in special examples until the development of the micrometre in the late 1800s; even then, interchangeability was not easy to achieve. Without the concept of interchangeability, accurate drawings were not necessary. After these advances, engineering drawing began to evolve more rapidly in the nineteenth century.

        Drafting Practices and Equipment

        Early engineering drawings were often works of art and commonly made with ink. Drafters initially drew using a pencil, T-square, triangles, scales, irregular (French) curves, and drawing instruments such as compasses and dividers. Drafting textbooks as late as the fourth edition of this textbook spent pages describing how to sharpen, hold, and properly use pencils to draw quality uniform lines. Drafters often traced original pencil drawings onto cloth using pen and ink. Drafters always paid skilled attention to lettering quality on drawings. Engineering drafters would use a specific lettering style referred to as vertical uppercase Gothic. Architectural drafters used a more artistic style of lettering that defined their drawings as uniquely related to their discipline. Over the years, various templates and other devices were introduced that allowed drafters to produce consistent quality lettering, although most professional drafters preferred to make quality freehand lettering.

        hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 6Drafters initially created drawings by hand on a drafting table referred to as aboard. An advance in drafting occurred with the introduction of the drafting machine, which replaced the T-square, triangles, scales and protractor for creating drawings. The drafting machine mounts to the table or board and has scales attached to an adjustable head that rotates for drawing angles. When locked in a zero position, the scales allow drawing horizontal and vertical lines and perpendicular lines at any angle orientation. There are arm and track drafting machines. The arm machine has arms attached to a mounting bracket at the top of the table. The arms control the movement of the head. The track machine has a traversing track that mounts to the table and a vertical track that moves along the horizontal track. The machine head traverses vertically on the track as shown in Figure.


        Many architectural drafters used a device called a parallel bar, is a long horizontal drafting edge attached to each side of the table that moves up and down on the table. The parallel bar allows the drafter to draw horizontal lines, and triangles are used on the bar to draw angled lines. During the decades after World War II, drafting equipment suppliers introduced a variety of materials to improve the productivity of the drafting process.

        Drawing Reproduction

        About the same time as interchangeability became important and engineering drawings were evolving, preserving, and duplicating original drawings became important. There was a need to reproduce drawings easily for distribution to manufacturers or builders, so the blueprint process developed. A blueprint is a contact chemical-printing process of a drawing or other image copied on paper with white lines on a blue background. As drawing reproduction evolved, a diazo process that created blue line copies with a white background replaced the blueprint process. Until recently, all drawing reproductions were commonly referred to as blueprints. Today, offices use printers, plotters, and engineering copiers that use xerography to reproduce CADD drawings. The generic term print has replaced the term blueprint.

        Computer-Aided Design and Drafting

        During the 1980s and 1990s, CADD rapidly became a technology to take seriously. Companies began considering the power of CADD as computer systems and CADD software developed capabilities and features that made them useful in producing professional drawings. Drafters who had used manual drafting for their entire careers had to face the challenge of converting their artistic skill into drawings created using a computer. This was a difficult challenge for many drafters. Soon schools began teaching drafting technology using CADD. This gave the traditional manual drafters an opportunity to learn the new technology and for new trainees to develop CADD knowledge and skills at the entry-level.

        hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 7In the 1980s, schools started teaching CADD in their curricula by adding a few computers into the traditional manual drafting program. Eventually, half of the typical classroom was equipped with traditional drafting tables and the other half was CADD workstations, or the school would open a separate CADD lab to teach courses. This plan closely paralleled what was happening in the industry for those companies that were taking CADD seriously. By the 1990s, many schools and companies were starting to make the complete transition to CADD by replacing manual drafting tables with CADD workstations. Today, CADD accounts for almost all design and drafting. The figure shows a 3-D model of an aeroplane engine, which demonstrates the power of CADD for designing products.




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        what is engineering Drawing


        Engineering drawing is the common language of engineering and describes the process of creating drawings for any engineering or architectural application. Engineering drawings, produced according to accepted standards and format, provide an effective and efficient way to communicate specific information about design intent. Engineering drawings are typically not open to interpretation like other drawings, such as decorative drawings and artistic paintings. A successful engineering drawing describes a specific item in a way that the viewer of the drawing understands completely and without misinterpretation.

        The term engineering drawing is also known as drafting, engineering drafting, mechanical drawing, mechanical drafting, technical drawing, and technical drafting. Drafting is a graphic language using lines, symbols, and notes to describe objects for manufacture or construction. Most technical disciplines use drafting, including architecture, civil and electrical engineering, electronics, piping, manufacturing, and structural engineering. The term mechanical drafting has alternate meanings. The manufacturing industry uses mechanical drafting, with its name derived from mechanisms. The construction industry also uses mechanical drafting, but the term refers to drafting heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, which is the mechanical portion of an architectural project.

        Manual drafting is a term that describes traditional drafting practice using pencil or ink on a medium such as paper or polyester film, with the support of drafting instruments and equipment. Computer-aided drafting (CAD) has taken the place of manual drafting. CAD uses computers for drafting. CAD also refers to computer-aided design when computers are used to design.

        Engineering drawings communicate a variety of concepts, such as engineering requirements, instructions, and proposals, to a variety of people, such as the many different individuals often involved with a project. An engineering drawing or a complete set of engineering drawings provides all of the data required to manufacture or construct an item or product, such as a machine part, consumer product, or structure.

        ENGINEERING DRAWINGStudy the drawing of the medical instrument part in Figure. The drawing completely and unmistakably describes the size and location of all geometric features, and it identifies other characteristics of the part, such as material and manufacturing precision and processes. The medical instrument company uses the drawing to share and document design intent and to manufacture the part. Consider how difficult it would be to explain the part without the engineering drawing.


        ENGINEERING DRAWING AUSTRALIAThe figure shows another example of an engineering drawing, an architectural drawing for a home-remodelling project.

        This engineering drawing is an architectural drawing for a home-remodelling project. The drawing is one sheet in a set of drawings that communicates architectural style, the size and location of building features, and construction methods and materials.

        The drawing is one sheet in a set of drawings that communicates architectural style, the size and location of building features, and construction methods and materials. The set of drawings is also required to obtain a loan to pay for construction, to acquire building permits to legally begin construction, and to establish accurate building cost estimates. Usually, it is legally impossible and certainly impractical to begin construction without engineering drawings.

        Computers in Design and Drafting

        The use of computers has revolutionized business and industry process, including design and drafting practices. Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is the process of using a computer with CADD software for design and drafting applications. Software is the program or instructions that enable a computer to perform specific functions to accomplish a task. CAD is the acronym for computer-aided design, but CAD is also a common reference to computer-aided drafting. Computer-aided design and computer-aided drafting refer to specific aspects of the CADD process. The use of CADD has made the design and drafting process more accurate and faster. Several industries and most disciplines related to engineering and architecture use CADD. Most engineering firms and educational institutions that previously used manual drafting practices have evolved to CADD.

        CADD allows designers and drafters to produce accurate drawings that are very neat and legible and matched to industry standards. CADD can even produce architectural drawings, which have always had an artistic flair with lettering and line styles, to match the appearance of the finest handwork available. In addition, CADD drawings are consistent from one person or company to the next. CADD enhances the ability for designers and drafters to be creative by providing many new tools such as solid modelling, animation, and virtual reality.

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        Engineering designs


        Engineering drawing and design is a broad subject that includes a wide range of theory and practice. Many different forms of drawing exist. Drawing occurs while at the lunch table as a basic sketch of a new product idea drawn on a napkin. Drawing also occurs in the form of a series of very complex models for a new automotive design and as hundreds of formal drawings needed for the construction of a skyscraper. You will learn the purpose and requirements to create meaningful engineering drawings as you use this textbook to study engineering drawing and design.

        Engineering design applications offer an early explanation and systematic problem-solving techniques applied to specific engineering projects or general design and drafting concepts. The engineering design application in this post guides you through a basic example of an engineering design process, beginning with an idea and a basic sketch and ending with the manufacture of an actual product.

        From an Idea to a Product

        Design ideas and engineering projects often establish or occur in informal settings. For instance, the engineer of a hand-tool manufacturing company was using a typically adjustable wrench to complete a common home-repair task. While using the wrench, the engineers discovered that it was diffi cult to access a confined location to remove a nut on a piece of equipment. The engineer imagined how the company could design, manufacture, and market a new wrench with features that help make the tool usable in cramped locations. The next day, the engineer and a colleague from the drafting department met for coffee. The engineer sketched the idea for the new wrench on a napkin to communicate the design to the drafter.


        The sketch shows the idea of taking the existing tool design and creating a new handle with an ogee, or S-shaped curve design. The sketch communicates the idea of taking an existing tool and creating a new handle with an ogee, or S-shaped curve design





        THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.2aLater the same day, the drafter opens the three- dimensional (3-D) solid model files of the existing wrench design on the computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) system (see Figure).




        THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.2bThe drafter copies and then revises the existing design according to the engineer’s sketch (see Figure). The drafter presents the new model to the engineer, who is pleased with the results and requests a rapid prototype. Rapid prototyping (RP) is the process of creating a physical and functional model from a computer-generated 3-D model, using an RP machine, also known as a 3-D  printer. RP machines are available that build prototypes from various materials such as paper and liquid polymer. The hand-tool company does not have an RP machine, so the drafter sends files of the design to a company that specializes in RP. The drafter and engineer receive a prototype two days later.


        THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.3The figure shows the prototype of the new wrench design. The design team tests the prototype in an application similar to what the engineer experienced at home. The prototype worked as expected.





        THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.4aBy the next afternoon, the drafter completes the set of working drawings shown in Figure and sends the drawings to the manufacturing department to manufacture and assemble the new product. The manufacturing department needs lead time to design and make the forging dies required to reproduce the parts. Lead time is the time interval between the initiation and the completion of a production process. Forging is the process of shaping malleable metals by hammering or pressing between dies that duplicate the desired shape. The hand-tool company is small, so the drafter is also responsible for creating catalogue art and copy for marketing the product.




        detail drawingsAssembly Drawings and Parts List & Detail drawing of the new wrench body part







        jaw part drawingsDetail drawing of the new wrench JAW part.






        gear part drawingsDetail drawing of the new wrench GEAR part.






        part drawings for pinDetail drawing of the new wrench PIN part.






        THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.6Less than two months after the engineer had the initial idea, the first production run of new wrenches is ready to sell. The figure shows the finished product.





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        What to choose 2D Drawing or 3D Model platform for CAD Designing

        2D Drawing


        There has been a new trend in CAD designing world for a 3D modelling for complex design and CAD design platform has evolved so much that 2D drawings become the by-product of 3D modelling.

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        2D drawings are easy to generate but engineers prefer 3D models for complex applications and design generation. When both are easily achievable, they also are a choice of avoiding catastrophe in the longer run. It basically demands foresight to decide and avail a smooth function of fabrication part of the engineering project and business applications on later stages. Engineering documentation is at the heart of the long, storied history of technical draftsmanship. The objective back then is no different from today's challenge: represent an engineering design in the most accurate and concise way possible. Distilling the 3D reality we live in onto sheets of paper involved a carefully considered system of dimensioning and orthographic projections. These days, they might be referred to as 2D Drawings (which is a redundant term if you think about it). The system worked then and it works now. Those who are well-trained in these classical methodologies have difficulty understanding why there should be anything else. Why fix what ain't broke?

        To think that 2D drawing has been trashed out with the advent of 3D CAD modelling is far from reality. 2D drafting still has a very prominent place amongst the industrial product designers, and they have their own reasons for it.

        2D is the best option when you are facing tight deadlines and the designs are to be developed for a single component or a single part. Basic geometries are easy to generate in 2D CAD sketching tools and are quick. They are intriguing when the drawings do not need any functionalities of 3D and require less space. A designer of any skill sets can easily work with 2D CAD and nearly any desktop will support 2D drafting.

        For a crystal clear usage, engineers still use 2D drafts for fabrication drawings, plans, elevation, sectional drawings and shop floor drawings for fabrication. In fact, it is quite surprising that approximately 30% of engineering design firms and design engineers still use paper to design the initial concept sketched and then resort to 2D CAD for digitization.

        Despite these benefits, there are a few drawbacks of using 2D. When sectional views are generated in 2D, updating them is time-consuming and also prone to errors. Also, 2D CAD software does not have rendering capabilities. This means, it involves an additional step to export and convert designs into 3D models before rendering.

        So for a fact, just to save time, you are doing two more steps, exporting and converting before any other action is being taken– literally two for one. It reduces productivity and lengthens the designing cycle. For these reasons, industry-wide shift to 3D modelling is witnessed among mechanical and industrial product design engineers.

        In contrast, the classic engineering drawing is fraught with limitations:

        • Interpretation Issues: A properly executed drawing shouldn't be subject to misinterpretation, but that skill is starting to become something of a lost art. Unclear depictions can be problematic (i.e. which surface did that leader line touch?). More disturbingly, errors can easily escape detection. Sure, most of that can be mitigated with carefully defined GD&T, but that too seems to be a fading skill. PMI improves upon these limitations by clearly associating surfaces and endpoints and providing validation that such dimensions do indeed make logical sense.
        • Manual Inspection: Drawings necessitate reinterpretation by humans on the other side of the manufacturing lifecycle. It's another way to introduce error: the botched inspection. PMI sets the stage for automated inspection, accelerating manufacturing processes while simultaneously improving quality.
        • Time is Money: This is where drawings go for the BRAINS... Simply put, in today's constantly accelerating demand to crank out the engineering in less time, drawings just take too long. Increased market pace demands more efficient processes. An engineer who's spent considerable time defining a model, shouldn't have to spend much longer documenting it. The days of modelling something then throwing it over a fence to lay it out are over. These two aspects of the design must occur simultaneously, and this ultimately is only possible with the model-based definition.

        3D Models: Make a three-way profit

        As business needs became bigger, design cycles were required to get shorter and engineering lead time needed to get easier and without errors; this is when more and more engineers started resorting to 3D CAD software. The advantage of using 3D CAD over 2D CAD is that it reduces the design cycle time to almost half and gives a competitive advantage to designers as well as fabricators by accommodating alterations, much fasters.

        Another takeaway with 3D CAD is that it offers excellent workaround while generating rapid prototypes. And with additive manufacturing gaining momentum over traditional manufacturing practices, 3D CAD is the way to adapt to easily transform designs into tangible products.

        Since additive manufacturing is a process that eliminates material cutting, it has a dramatic control over scrap produced. This is one among many reasons why this phenomenon has gained traction for every fabricator in any industry – be it industrial sheet metal tools, automotive, building products, furniture or any other that one can think of.

        Such a paradigm shift makes it even more important than ever to adopt 3D CAD and drop 2D drafting process for saving material, directly targeting to increase their profits and connects the digital thread opportunity directly with the designs.

        Other than these three major benefits, 3D CAD usually offers more functionality to the user. These functionalities encompass 3D arrays, special views, referencing and much more. But at times these are too many for generating basic part models like line-types, line-weights, and other form features are good to go. In such times, it feels that 2D drawings should be preferred instead of 3D.

        Also because since 3D CAD is advanced, licensing is much expensive and renewing it each time the software company rolls-out new version, [not to mention it happens almost every year] it costs heavily to designers. Thus, it is much needed to weigh your needs of design requirements and analyze the cost you are paying for it.

        By now, you must have realized that, on the contrary to popular belief, there will be times when you’ll find 2D CAD to be the need of the hour and not 3D models. While during the other times, you’ll find your designing world revolving in the three dimensions of 3D CAD models, whatever be your need – fabrication, design intent clarity or profits – to avoid catastrophe and binge working at the last moment. The hitch is that you select the one that addresses most of your needs since there isn’t any single CAD system that will address all your design and fabrication needs.